Since time immemorial, the child-parent relationship has a major influence of most aspects in child development, which is crucial to its character formation on reaching adulthood.
In an optimum way, the good parenting skills (and behavior) of both parents has a positive impact on the child’s self-esteem, personal achievements, development and behavior.
Between parents, there are also many differences on how they respond to their children’s signal and control the kid’s behavior. Studies show that high-quality care-giving with a sensitive, and moderately controlling approach is very crucial for the development of the children.
This is influenced by the interactions between personal and environmental factors. These factors include the children’s characteristics, the parent’s characteristics, and the broader social context on where they live.
Many of the skills that children acquire in their early years are basically dependent on the quality of their interactions with their parents.
These includes fostering the children’s early learning (language and problem solving skills) and in the formation of their social and emotional skills (emotions, stress reaction and self-esteem).
Parents have an influence on the development, maintenance and ending of a child’s behavior (positive or negative). The quality of the parenting on the children in their early years, affects at least three key determinants of later success: cognitive potential, social skills, and behavior functioning.
Related to this is the consideration of the fact that good parenting skills can be acquired and passed on to the next generation. This makes the improvement of the quality of care-giving very important in every character facet.
It is accepted that sensitive-responsive parenting is generally associated with positive emotionality in children. However, irritable or aggressive children tend to receive less supportive or sometimes problematic parenting.
Specifically, the kind of parenting that is characterized by inconsistent, rigid, or irritable explosive discipline is closely related with the development of child conduct problems. This is also associated with low supervision and involvement from the parents.
Behaviors and temperaments
Parents are also affected in different ways by the behavior and temperament of their child. The level of warmth or acceptance of the parents is influenced by the way they interpret and react to their child’s behavior, their expectations (of their child’s abilities) and their own psychological functioning.
Those parents who are able to understand the causes of their child’s distress and who are confident of their good parenting skills tend to be more nurturing, comforting and assertive.
Hostile or submissive
On the other hand, the parents who believe their child has more power than them in difficult situations tend to use less effective parenting practices. They either become hostile or submissive.
In addition, parents with inaccurate beliefs and poor understanding of a child’s developmental milestones tend to be less sensitive to the signals given by their child.
Finally, the parents psychological functioning also influences the care-giving approach. An example would be naturally anxious parents tend to adopt an over-protective style of parenting. The irony is that emphasis on overprotection may promote the development of anxiety in the child himself.